Singular Plural/ How to make plural in English: Rules and list of plurals


Singular Plural nouns
Singular Plural

Singular/plural Nouns in the English language

In all languages we must talk about the number,  in the English language there are two numbers

Singular ( one person or thing )

Plural ( more than one person or thing )

Singular Noun:

A single noun is one that only refers to one person or thing. It is called singular.

Plural Noun:

When a noun refers to more than one person or thing. It is called plural.

Rules of forming the Plural noun

Rule no 1  :

The most usual way of making a plural noun is by adding ” s ” to the singular.

Rule number 1
Singular Plural
Cat Cats
Bat Bats
car cars
Fan Fans
Door Doors
Window Windows
Pen Pens
King Kings
Paper Papers
Picture Pictures

Rule no 2 :

Nouns ending with ” s, ss, sh, ch, or x,z ” are made plural by ending  “es” to the singular.

Rule number 2
Singular Plural
Class Classes
Bus Buses
Glass Glasses
Dish Dishes
Brush Brushes
Bush Bushes
Branch Branches
Lunch Lunches
Church Churches
Fox Foxes
Box Boxes
Tax Taxes
Bench Benches
Pitch Pitches
Ass Asses
Dress Dresses
Match Matches
Gas Gases
Inch Inches

Rule no 3 :

Nouns ending with ” O ” are made plural by adding  “es” to singular.
Rule number 3
Singular Plural
Potato Potatoes
Tomato Tomatoes
Mango Mangoes
Hero Heroes
Echo Echoes

Rule no 4 :

Some nouns ending with ” O ” have only “s”
in their plural forms.
Rule number 4
Singular Plural
Video Videos
Piano Pianos
Photo Photos
Radio Radios
Stereo Stereos
Bamboo Bamboos
Dynamo Dynamos
Kangaroo Kangaroos
Zoo Zoos

Rule no 5 :

Noun ending with ” y ” with a consonant before ” y ” these words are made plural by changing ” y” into ” i ” and adding ” es ” in them.
Rule number 5
Singular Plural
Party Parties
Lady Ladies
Puppy Puppies
City Cities
Family Families
Baby Babies
Company Companies
Army Armies
Poetry Poetries
Story Stories
Penny Pennies
Berry Berries
Scenery Sceneries
Candy Candies
Pony Ponies
County Countries
Copy Copies
Enemy Enemies
Library Libraries
University Universities

Rule no 6:

Nouns ending with  “y” with a vowel before “y” these words are made plural by simply add an “s” in them.
Rule number 6
Singular Plural
Boy Boys
Ray Rays
Toy Toys
Kidney Kidneys
Donkey Donkeys
Monkey Monkeys
Highway Highways
Day Days
Holiday Holidays
Journey Journeys
Storey Storeys
Key Keys
Guy Guys
Tray Trays
Valley Valleys

Rule no 7 :

Many nouns ending with ” f ” or ” fe ” are made plural by changing into ” v ” and adding “es ” into them.
Rule number 7
Singular Plural
Life Lives
Thief Thieves
Knife Knives
Leaf Leaves
Wife Wives
Half Halves
Calf Calves
Shelf Shelves
Wolf Wolves
Loaf Loaves
Calf Calves

Exception :

But some nouns ending with “f” or ” fe ” by making plurals of them simply “s” is added.
Singular Plural
Proof Proofs
Belief Beliefs
Chef Chefs
Roof Roofs
Gulf Gulfs
Cuff Cuffs
Safe Safes
Chief Chiefs
Cliff Cliffs
Proof Proofs
Gulf Gulfs

Rule no.8:

Plural of few nouns forms by changing the inside vowels of the singular.
Rule number 8
Singular Plural
Man Men
Woman Women
Goose Geese
Foot Feet
Tooth Teeth

Rule no 9:

Some nouns have the same singular & plural forms.
Rule number 9
Singular Plural
Sheep Sheep
Deer Deer
Swine Swine
Million Million
Dozen Dozen
Grass Grass
Hair Hair
species species
Fish Fish
pair pair
Series Series
Swine Swine
News News
Tuna Tuna
Bison Bison
Aircraft Aircraft

Irregular plural:

Some singular nouns do not follow any rules and their plural forms are irregular.
Irregular plurals
Singular Plural
Child Children
Ox Oxen
Mouse Mice
Person People
Apex Apices
Larva Larvae
Analysis Analyses
Vita Vitae
Crisis Crises
Alumni Alumnae
Trout Trout
Genus Genera
Codex Codices
Index Indices
Quiz Quizzes
Datum Data
Curriculum Curricula
Focus Foci
Oasis Oases

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